A new study published this month by the American Association of the Advancement of Science indicates that immune cells “may have a direct role in causing behaviors linked to autism.” The study abstract noted that previous research has already shown “viral infection during pregnancy has been correlated with increased frequency of autism spectrum disorder in offspring.”
For this study, researchers at New York University Langone studied a subset of T-helper lymphocyte cells called TH17 and the production of cytokine interleukin-17a (IL-17a). The study in mice mimicked a viral invasion and showed using genetic mutants and blocking antibodies that TH17 and IL-17a caused maternal immune activation (MIA) behavior abnormalities in mice offspring. Additionally, the study demonstrated that “blocking the action of TH17 and IL-17a completely restored normal structure and functioning” in the mice offspring brains. The study’s authors suggest that the “therapeutic targeting of TH17 cells in susceptible pregnant mothers may reduce the likelihood of bearing children with inflammation-induced” autism spectrum disorder behaviors.